Lesson Topics

Past Participle

Notes:

  1. The written lesson is below.
  2. Links to quizzes, tests, etc. are to the left.

The past participle will be important in future lessons covering the perfect tenses. To form the past participle, simply drop the infinitive ending (-ar, -er, -ir) and add -ado (for -ar verbs) or -ido (for -er, -ir verbs).

hablar - ar + ado = hablado

comer - er + ido = comido

vivir - ir + ido = vivido



The following common verbs have irregular past participles:

abrir (to open) - abierto (open)

cubrir (to cover) - cubierto (covered)

decir (to say) - dicho (said)

escribir (to write) - escrito (written)

freír (to fry) - frito (fried)

hacer (to do) - hecho (done)

morir (to die) - muerto (dead)

poner (to put) - puesto (put)

resolver (to resolve) - resuelto (resolved)

romper (to break) - roto (broken)

ver (to see) - visto (seen)

volver (to return) - vuelto (returned)



Note that compound verbs based on the irregular verbs inherit the same irregularities. Here are a few examples:

componer - compuesto
describir - descrito
devolver - devuelto



Most past participles can be used as adjectives. Like other adjectives, they agree in gender and number with the nouns that they modify.

La puerta está cerrada.
The door is closed.

Las puertas están cerradas.
The doors are closed.

El restaurante está abierto.
The restaurant is open.

Los restaurantes están abiertos.
The restaurants are open.



The past participle can be combined with the verb "ser" to express the passive voice. Use this construction when an action is being described, and introduce the doer of the action with the word "por."

La casa fue construida por los carpinteros.
The house was built by the carpenters.

La tienda es abierta todos los días por el dueño.
The store is opened every day by the owner.



Note that for -er and -ir verbs, if the stem ends in a vowel, a written accent will be required.

creer - creído
oír - oído

Note: this rule does not apply, and no written accent is required for verbs ending in -uir. (construir, seguir, influir, distinguir, etc.)



Let's add two more flashcards for the past participles, since they will later be used for the perfect tenses:

Verb Flashcards
Complete List

Past Participle

Infinitive - ending + ado/ido
(hablado, comido, vivido)

Past Participle Irregulars

abrir (to open) - abierto (open)
cubrir (to cover) - cubierto (covered)
decir (to say) - dicho (said)
escribir (to write) - escrito (written)
freír (to fry) - frito (fried)
hacer (to do) - hecho (done)
morir (to die) - muerto (dead)
poner (to put) - puesto (put)
resolver (to resolve) - resuelto (resolved)
romper (to break) - roto (broken)
ver (to see) - visto (seen)
volver (to return) - vuelto (returned)

Items of Interest