Lesson Topics

Subjunctive: Part II

Notes:

  1. The written lesson is below.
  2. Links to quizzes, tests, etc. are to the left.

In Part I, you learned that the subjunctive mood is used whenever the speaker feels any uncertainty about the action of the sentence, or when the speaker is expressing a subjective opinion.

In this lesson you will begin to learn how to conjugate verbs in the present subjunctive.



For most verbs, the present subjunctive is formed by following these three steps:

  1. Start with the yo form of the present indicative.
  2. Then drop the -o ending.
  3. Finally, add the following endings:

-ar verbs:
-e, -es, -e, -emos, -éis, -en

-er and -ir verbs:
-a, -as, -a, -amos, -áis, -an



Regular -ar verbs like hablar (yo hablo).

hablo - o = habl

habl + e = hable
habl + es = hables
habl + e = hable
habl + emos = hablemos
habl + éis = habléis
habl + en = hablen



Regular -er verbs like comer (yo como).

como - o = com

com + a = coma
com + as = comas
com + a = coma
com + amos = comamos
com + áis = comáis
com + an = coman



Regular -ir verbs like vivir (yo vivo).

vivo - o = viv

viv + a = viva
viv + as = vivas
viv + a = viva
viv + amos = vivamos
viv + áis = viváis
viv + an = vivan



The formula also works for verbs that have irregular "yo" forms in the present indicative. Study these examples:

conocer (yo conozco)
conozco - o = conozc

conozc + a = conozca
conozc + as = conozcas
conozc + a = conozca
conozc + amos = conozcamos
conozc + áis = conozcáis
conozc + an = conozcan

tener (yo tengo)
tengo - o = teng

teng + a = tenga
teng + as = tengas
teng + a = tenga
teng + amos = tengamos
teng + áis = tengáis
teng + an = tengan

salir (yo salgo)
salgo - o = salg

salg + a = salga
salg + as = salgas
salg + a = salga
salg + amos = salgamos
salg + áis = salgáis
salg + an = salgan



For -ar and -er stem-changing verbs, the formula applies except that there is no stem change in the nosotros and vosotros forms. Study these examples:

pensar (yo pienso)
pienso - o = piens

piens + e = piense
piens + es = pienses
piens + e = piense
pens + emos = pensemos
pens + éis = penséis
piens + en = piensen

perder (yo pierdo)
pierdo - o = pierd

pierd + a = pierda
pierd + as = pierdas
pierd + a = pierda
perd + amos = perdamos
perd + áis = perdáis
pierd + an = pierdan

contar (yo cuento)
cuento - o = cuent

cuent + e = cuente
cuent + es = cuentes
cuent + e = cuente
cont + emos = contemos
cont + éis = contéis
cuent + en = cuenten

volver (yo vuelvo)
vuelvo - o = vuelv

vuelv + a = vuelva
vuelv + as = vuelvas
vuelv + a = vuelva
volv + amos = volvamos
volv + áis = volváis
vuelv + an = vuelvan



For -ir stem-changing verbs, the formula applies except that the stem change in the nosotros and vosotros forms follows these patterns: o:ue verbs change o to u; e:ie verbs change e to i; e:i verbs change e to i. Study these examples:

dormir (yo duermo)
duermo - o = duerm

duerm + a = duerma
duerm + as = duermas
duerm + a = duerma
durm + amos = durmamos
durm + áis = durmáis
duerm + an = duerman

sentir (yo siento)
siento - o = sient

sient + a = sienta
sient + as = sientas
sient + a = sienta
sint + amos = sintamos
sint + áis = sintáis
sient + an = sientan

pedir (yo pido)
pido - o = pid

pid + a = pida
pid + as = pidas
pid + a = pida
pid + amos = pidamos
pid + áis = pidáis
pid + an = pidan



There are just a few more rules for conjugating verbs in the present subjunctive. They will be covered in the next two lessons.



Let's add flashcards for the conjugations covered in this lesson:

Verb Flashcards
Complete List

Present Subjunctive - hablar

hable
hables
hable
hablemos
habléis
hablen

Present Subjunctive - comer

coma
comas
coma
comamos
comáis
coman

Present Subjunctive - vivir

viva
vivas
viva
vivamos
viváis
vivan

Present Subjunctive - verbs with irregular first persons in present indicative

conocer - conozca, conozcas, conozca, conozcamos, conozcáis, conozcan

tener - tenga, tengas, tenga, tengamos, tengáis, tengan

salir - salga, salgas, salga, salgamos, salgáis, salgan

Present Subjunctive - -ar and -er stem-changing verbs

Conjugate just like regular subjunctives (using "yo" form of the indicative) except the stem change does not occur in the nosotros/vosotros forms:

pensar

piense
pienses
piense
pensemos
penséis
piensen

Present Subjunctive - -ir stem-changing verbs

Conjugate just like regular subjunctives (using "yo" form of the indicative) except the stem change in the nosotros and vosotros forms follows these patterns: o:ue verbs change o to u; e:ie verbs change e to i; e:i verbs change e to i.:

dormir - durmamos
sentir - sintamos
pedir - pidamos

Items of Interest