Lesson Topics

Subjunctive: Part VIII

Notes:

  1. The written lesson is below.
  2. Links to quizzes, tests, etc. are to the left.

In Part I, you learned that the subjunctive mood is used whenever the speaker feels uncertain about the action of the sentence, or when the speaker is expressing a subjective opinion.



In Parts II - IV, you learned all the rules for conjugating regular verbs in the present subjunctive.



In this lesson, you will simply practice another of the many ways the subjunctive is used: with actions that are not yet completed.



Here is a list of common expressions that may indicate that the action that follows has not yet been completed. These expressions will always invoke the subjunctive:

a menos que ...
unless ...
antes (de) que ...
before ...
con tal (de) que ...
provided that ...
en caso de que ...
in case ...
para que ...
so that ...
sin que ...
without ...


The following expressions only invoke the subjunctive when they indicate that the action that follows has not yet been completed:

después de que...
after...
en cuanto...
as soon as...
hasta que...
until...
mientras que...
while...
tan pronto como...
as soon as...


Remember, there are also expressions that trigger the use of the indicative mood, since they introduce a quality of certainty or objectivity. Here's a partial list of such expressions that we will mix into the practice exercises for this lesson, just to keep you on your toes!

es cierto que ...
it is certain that ...
es claro que ...
it is clear that ...
es evidente que ...
it is certain that ...
es obvio que ...
it is obvious that ...
es verdad que ...
it is true that ...


Let's add a flashcard for some expressions that may indicate that the action that follows has not yet been completed:

Verb Flashcards
Complete List

Present Subjunctive - incompleted actions

a menos que
antes de que
con tal de que
después de que
hasta que
mientras que
tan pronto como

Items of Interest